What bacteria causes neonatal meningitis?
Although the occurrence of neonatal meningitis is uncommon, it remains a devastating infection with high mortality and high morbidity. Neonatal meningitis is often caused by group B streptococcus and is associated with prematurity, gestational age, postnatal age, and geographic region.
Which microorganism can be part of the normal vaginal flora and cause meningitis in newborns?
Group B Streptococcus
Neonatal Streptococcus agalactiae infection is acquired in utero or during passage through the vagina. Evidence suggests that vaginal colonization by Streptococcus agalactiae during pregnancy increases the risk of vertical transmission and early-onset disease in neonates.
What is the most common cause of meningitis in newborns?
Many different types of bacteria can cause bacterial meningitis. In newborns, the most common causes are group B strep, E. coli, and less commonly, Listeria monocytogenes. In older kids, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) and Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) are often the causes.
How does a newborn get bacterial meningitis?
Your baby can get meningitis when bacteria, viruses, or a fungus infecting another part of their body travels in the bloodstream to their brain and spinal cord. Out of 1,000 live births, about 0.1 to 0.4 neonates (a baby less than 28 days old) get meningitis, estimates a 2017 review.
How is neonatal meningitis treated?
Antibiotic choices for neonatal meningitis include ampicillin and gentamicin or cefotaxime. For infants younger than 8 days old, the dose for Ampicillin is 150 mg/kg per day divided every 8 hours, plus gentamicin 4 mg/kg daily or cefotaxime 100 to 150 mg/kg per day divided every 8 to 12 hours.
What are the complications of neonatal meningitis?
Acute complications of neonatal bacterial meningitis include cerebral edema (vasogenic and cytotoxic), increased intracranial pressure (ICP), ventriculitis, cerebritis, hydrocephalus, brain abscess, cerebral infarction, cerebral venous thrombosis, arterial stroke, and subdural effusion or empyema [2,3]. Development of …
What happens when a baby is born with meningitis?
Bacterial meningitis is inflammation of the layers of tissue surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meninges) caused by bacteria. Newborns with bacterial meningitis are usually irritable, vomit, or may have seizures.
How common is infant meningitis?
In the United States, there are roughly 300 to 400 cases of neonatal meningitis for every 100,000 live births. A rare type of meningitis, this often life-threatening condition affects newborns and is caused by various bacteria, including group B strep, E. coli, and listeria.
Is the cause of majority of the cases of neonatal and infant meningitis?
The most common causes of neonatal bacterial meningitis are group B streptococcus, E. coli, and L. monocytogenes.
How do they test for meningitis in babies?
How is meningitis diagnosed in a child?
- Lumbar puncture (spinal tap). This is the only test that diagnoses meningitis. …
- Blood tests. These can help diagnose infections that cause meningitis.
- CT scan or MRI. These are tests that show images of the brain. …
- Nasal, throat, or rectal swabs.